Temporary Foreign Worker Program
Labour Market Opinion (LMO) Statistics
Following an employer's application, a labour market opinion (LMO) is issued by Human Resources and Skills Development Canada (HRSDC)/Service Canada. This LMO is provided to Citizenship and Immigration Canada (CIC) and communicated to the employer. An LMO assesses the likely impact that hiring a temporary foreign worker (TFW) will have on the Canadian labour market and is required in some cases to complete a work permit application. Not all TFWs require an LMO to obtain a work permit. A number of exemptions exist, including those provided for in the General Agreement on Trade in Services and the North American Free Trade Agreement.
The decision to issue a work permit rests with CIC. A work permit may not be issued for all TFWs named on an LMO confirmation (i.e., an application that received a positive or neutral LMO). In addition, there may be a delay between the date of confirmation and the date on which a TFW obtains a work permit and/or enters Canada.
HRSDC s Labour Market Opinion (LMO) Statistics include annual and quarterly data on the number of temporary foreign worker (TFW) positions on LMO confirmations. Reporting is based on the number of positions rather than the number of LMOs since several positions can be requested on a single LMO.
Labour Market Opinion (LMO) Statistics are derived from HRSDC's administrative data files on labour market opinion applications. LMOs related to hiring a skilled worker for a permanent position (i.e.: arranged employment opinions) are not included in this publication.
In order to ensure the protection of personal information, cells containing less than 10 cases in a specific category have been suppressed and replaced with the notation "--". Additional cells may also have been suppressed to ensure confidentiality. As a result, components may not sum up to the total indicated.
The numbers appearing in this report will be updated at regular intervals as necessary adjustments to the TFWP's administrative data files occur over time. For the annual statistics released in March, only the latest two years of information are updated. For the quarterly statistics, all four quarters of the previous year are updated in the June release.
As statistics are updated, previously released statistics are archived and made available for reference purposes, as originally released. The annual statistics are archived in March and the quarterly statistics in June. The release date specified indicates when statistics were last updated for a particular table.
Advice on comparing HRSDC LMO data with CIC TFW entry data
Citizenship and Immigration Canada (CIC) publishes annual statistics on the number of foreign workers who entered Canada in its publication Facts and Figures. Those statistics are based on the number of work permits issued at the port of entry. Because not all Temporary Foreign Workers (TFWs) require a labour market opinion (LMO) to obtain a work permit, statistics contained in the Temporary Foreign Worker Program - Labour Market Opinion (LMO) Statistics cannot be interpreted as having a direct correlation with data published by CIC.
The decision to issue a work permit rests with CIC. A work permit may not be issued for all TFWs named on a labour market opinion confirmation. In addition, there may be a delay between the date of confirmation and the date on which the TFW obtains a work permit and/or enters Canada.
LMO statistics will be available according to the following schedule:
- Quarterly Statistics: October to December of the previous year
- Annual Statistics for the previous year
- Archive of previously released annual statistics
- Quarterly Statistics: January to March of the current year
- Archive of previously released quarterly statistics
- Quarterly Statistics: April to June of the current year
- Quarterly Statistics: July to September of the current year
Size is estimated by adding the number of employees (Canadians, permanent residents and temporary foreign workers) employed by an enterprise at a point in time, as reported on the employer's application for a labour market opinion. It is possible that an employer may be included in two different size categories as the workforce increases/decreases.
The categories used in this publication cover both goods-producing and services-producing industries:
- Micro: 1-4 employees
- Small: 5-49 employees
- Small-Medium: 50-99 employees
- Medium: 100-499 employees
- Large: 500+ employees
Live-in Caregiver Program:
Program through which employers may apply for a labour market opinion for a foreign live-in caregiver. A live-in caregiver is a person who resides in and provides child care, senior home support care or care of the disabled without supervision in the private household in Canada where the person being cared for resides.
National Occupational Classification (NOC):
The NOC is the nationally accepted reference on occupations in Canada. It organizes over 30,000 job titles into 520 occupational group descriptions. It is used daily by thousands of people to compile, analyze and communicate information about occupations, and to understand the jobs found throughout Canada's labour market.
National Occupational Classification (NOC) Skill Level:
The NOC consists of four broad skill levels identified as A through D. These levels correspond to the kind and/or amount of training or education required for entering an occupation. Management occupations are not subject to the skill level criteria as entry into management is often dependant on previous occupational experience or expertise and other factors.
Skill Level is referenced by the second digit of the NOC code as follows: 1 corresponds to Skill Level A; 2 or 3 correspond to Skill Level B; 4 or 5 correspond to Skill Level C; and 6 corresponds to Skill Level D.
The following are the skill levels used in this publication:
- A - Professionals represents occupations usually requiring university education.
- B - Skilled and Technical refers to occupations usually requiring college education or apprenticeship training.
- C - Intermediate and Clerical represents occupations generally requiring completion of secondary school and some job-specific training or completion of courses directly related to the work.
- D - Elemental and Labourers represents occupations usually requiring on-the-job training, short demonstration sessions or instruction that takes place in the work environment.
National Occupational Classification (NOC) Skill Type:
The first digit of the NOC code identifies the Skill Type of an occupation. Management occupations, which are found across all Skill Types, from 1 through 9, start with the digit 0.
The following is a list of the skill types used in this publication:
- 0 - Management Occupations
- 1 - Business, Finance and Administration Occupations
- 2 - Natural and Applied Sciences and Related Occupations
- 3 - Health Occupations
- 4 - Occupations in Social Science, Education, Government Service and Religion
- 5 - Occupations in Art, Culture, Recreation and Sport
- 6 - Sales and Service Occupations
- 7 - Trades, Transport and Equipment Operators and Related Occupations
- 8 - Occupations Unique to Primary Industry
- 9 - Occupations Unique to Processing, Manufacturing and Utilities
North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) 2002 – Canada:
The NAICS is an industry classification system developed by the statistical agencies of Canada, Mexico and the United States designed to provide common definitions of the industrial structure of the three countries to facilitate the analysis of the three economies. Main industry sectors are identified at the 2-digit NAICS code.
The following is a list of the main industry sectors used in this publication:
- 11 - Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing and Hunting
- 21 - Mining and Oil and Gas Extraction
- 22 - Utilities
- 23 - Construction
- 31-33 - Manufacturing
- 41 - Wholesale Trade
- 44-45 - Retail Trade
- 48-49 - Transportation and Warehousing
- 51 - Information and Cultural Industries
- 52 - Finance and Insurance
- 53 - Real Estate, Rental and Leasing
- 54 - Professional, Scientific and Technical Services
- 55 - Management of Companies and Enterprises
- 56 - Administrative and Support, Waste Management and Remediation Services
- 61 - Educational Services
- 62 - Health Care and Social Assistance
- 71 - Arts, Entertainment and Recreation
- 72 - Accommodation and Food Services
- 81 - Other Services (except Public Administration)
- 91 - Public Administration
The release date represents the date the statistics in a particular table were last updated. The statistics may have been updated in a later release.
Seasonal Agricultural Worker Program (SAWP):
The Seasonal Agricultural Worker Program allows for the organized entry of temporary foreign workers from Mexico and a number of Caribbean countries into Canada to meet the yearly peak seasonal labour needs of agricultural producers when Canadian workers are not available. It has been developed with cooperation from HRSDC, CIC, the government of Mexico, and several governments in the Caribbean Commonwealth.
Temporary foreign workers (TFW):
Temporary residents who entered Canada mainly to work and who have been issued a work permit (with or without the need to obtain a labour market opinion (LMO)). A work permit is an official document issued by an immigration officer that allows someone who is not a Canadian citizen or a permanent resident to work in Canada. Some temporary jobs in Canada may not require a work permit – for example, news reporters, public speakers, performing artists, foreign government officers. All positions reported in this publication require an LMO.
This section is under development
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